• JAPANESE VERB FORMS | HOW TO CONJUGATE VERBS IN JAPANESE

    When we think of verb conjugation, we often think of it from a European language perspective. We run through the verb conjugation tables we learned in school – I run, you run, he runs, she runs, we run, they run…

    But Japanese doesn’t handle verbs in quite the same way.

    Rather than needing to figure out how to conjugate verbs based on who is doing the action, you conjugate them based on who you’re addressing (formal/informal) and the action that’s taking place.

    This was something that I struggled with, and I juggled tons of different versions of verbs in my head, never sure when or where to use them. So I started to collect the different forms. This guide is the result.

    In it, I share how to conjugate the three different verb forms, plus you can download my PDF resource with several of the most used verbs and a wide range of their different conjugations both for formal and informal address. I hope that you find it useful.

    Get your free PDF with 10+ Japanese Verb Conjugations

    Get the PDF

    Conjugating Japanese Verbs

    Japanese conjugation is the same regardless of the subject. You don’t need to worry about learning “I read, you read, she reads” because the form of the verb will be the same regardless of who is doing the action.

    You do, however, conjugate verbs based on who you’re addressing and the context of the action taking place. For example, take a look at how the following verbs differ when addressing someone in a formal situation (~masu form) versus an informal situation (plain form).

    Here are a few factors that may modify the verb form:

    • Formality // There are three levels of formality, or keigo, in Japanese (sonkei-go, kenjo-go, teinei-go). Each changes the way you use verbs.
    • Yes or no // Positive and negative sentences have different conjugations.
    • Tense // If you’re talking about something in the present or future, you’ll use a different verb form than if you’re talking about something that happened in the past.
    • Action // If you are in the process of doing something, it will take a different form than if you’re talking about it more generally. This may sound difficult, but we have this in English. For example, it’s the difference between “I study” and “I’m studying”.
    Formal Japanese Informal Japanese English
    しますするto do 
    いきますいくto go
    たべますたべるto eat

    Japanese verbs are grouped into three different types: ~u verbs, ~iru and ~eru verbs, and irregular verbs. They have several different forms including:

    • ~masu form
    • plain form
    • dictionary form
    • ~te form
    • ~i form
    • conditional
    • potential
    • imperative
    • volitional
    • etc.

    Japanese verbs have two parts, the suffix and the stem. Splitting these components apart and modifying them is how you conjugate a verb. Take みる (to look) for example. み or 見 (kanji) is the stem while is る the base.

    Conjugating みる

    Form Japanese Transliteration
    ~masu (polite)みますmimasu
    plainみるmiru
    ~masu negativeみませんmimasen
    plain form negativeみないminai

    How the Three Verb Forms Differ

    Japanese verbs are placed into three groups because they are each modified a little differently.

    ~Ru Verbs

    To conjugate a ~ru verb, you replace ~ru with the appropriate ending as done in the the above example “to look”. This group is often also called the ~eru and ~iru verb group because almost all ~eru and ~iru verbs are ~ru verbs and not ~u verbs.

    ~U Verbs

    This is the more complex of the Japanese verb groups because despite the ending being ~u, the word can actually end in ~ku, ~su, ~tsu, ~nu, and even… ~ru. Some notable exceptions where a ~ru ending is actually a ~u verb include kaeru (to return), hairu (to enter), shiru (to know) and iru (to need).

    Irregular Verbs

    Japanese only has two irregular verbs (hooray!) kuru (to come) and suru (to do). They are both common verbs, but suru is one that you’ll use often. Particularly because it combines with other words to form additional verbs – take benkyou suru (to study) for instance.

    Using Conjugations to Express Different Actions

    With Japanese conjugation, you can attach a variety of endings to express a lot of different ideas. It’s a very useful technique to use because you memorize the endings and tack them on to the ends of different verbs to immediately construct more complex sentences. Here are just a few using みる as an example.

    Ending Japanese English (formal forms)
    ~mashitaみましたI saw
    ~tsumoridesuみるつもりですI plan to see 
    ~nakerebanaranaidesuみなければならないですI must see
    ~taidesuみたいですI want to see
    ~nikuidesuみにくいですIt’s hard to see

    A Cheat Sheet for Japanese Verb Conjugation

    My Japanese tutor and I worked together to assemble 32 different verb conjugations or form for more than ten of the most common Japanese verbs. I regularly reference it in my studies, so I thought it would be a useful resource for many other Japanese learners.

    Verb conjugation can be tricky, especially when you need to memorize tons of different rules and forms. Having a reference point is a great way to get started and wrap your head around more complex grammar and information.

    Get the PDF
    Tips for Language Learning | Eurolinguiste

    Are you learning Japanese? What are some phrases that you’ve found useful in your target language? I’d love to hear about them in the comments!

    April 30, 2018 • Language Resources • Views: 1175

  • Japanese Verb Forms | How to Conjugate Verbs in Japanese

    When we think of verb conjugation, we often think of it from a European language perspective. We run through the verb conjugation tables we learned in school – I run, you run, he runs, she runs, we run, they run…

    But Japanese doesn’t handle verbs in quite the same way.

    Rather than needing to figure out how to conjugate verbs based on who is doing the action, you conjugate them based on who you’re addressing (formal/informal) and the action that’s taking place.

    This was something that I struggled with, and I juggled tons of different versions of verbs in my head, never sure when or where to use them. So I started to collect the different forms. This guide is the result.

    In it, I share how to conjugate the three different verb forms, plus you can download my PDF resource with several of the most used verbs and a wide range of their different conjugations both for formal and informal address. I hope that you find it useful.

    Get your free PDF with 10+ Japanese Verb Conjugations

    Get the PDF

    Conjugating Japanese Verbs

    Japanese conjugation is the same regardless of the subject. You don’t need to worry about learning “I read, you read, she reads” because the form of the verb will be the same regardless of who is doing the action.

    You do, however, conjugate verbs based on who you’re addressing and the context of the action taking place. For example, take a look at how the following verbs differ when addressing someone in a formal situation (~masu form) versus an informal situation (plain form).

    Here are a few factors that may modify the verb form:

    • Formality // There are three levels of formality, or keigo, in Japanese (sonkei-go, kenjo-go, teinei-go). Each changes the way you use verbs.
    • Yes or no // Positive and negative sentences have different conjugations.
    • Tense // If you’re talking about something in the present or future, you’ll use a different verb form than if you’re talking about something that happened in the past.
    • Action // If you are in the process of doing something, it will take a different form than if you’re talking about it more generally. This may sound difficult, but we have this in English. For example, it’s the difference between “I study” and “I’m studying”.
    Formal JapaneseInformal JapaneseEnglish
    しますするto do 
    いきますいくto go
    たべますたべるto eat

    Japanese verbs are grouped into three different types: ~u verbs, ~iru and ~eru verbs, and irregular verbs. They have several different forms including:

    • ~masu form
    • plain form
    • dictionary form
    • ~te form
    • ~i form
    • conditional
    • potential
    • imperative
    • volitional
    • etc.

    Japanese verbs have two parts, the suffix and the stem. Splitting these components apart and modifying them is how you conjugate a verb. Take みる (to look) for example. み or 見 (kanji) is the stem while is る the base.

    Conjugating みる

    FormJapaneseTransliteration
    ~masu (polite)みますmimasu
    plainみるmiru
    ~masu negativeみませんmimasen
    plain form negativeみないminai

    How the Three Verb Forms Differ

    Japanese verbs are placed into three groups because they are each modified a little differently.

    ~Ru Verbs

    To conjugate a ~ru verb, you replace ~ru with the appropriate ending as done in the the above example “to look”. This group is often also called the ~eru and ~iru verb group because almost all ~eru and ~iru verbs are ~ru verbs and not ~u verbs.

    ~U Verbs

    This is the more complex of the Japanese verb groups because despite the ending being ~u, the word can actually end in ~ku, ~su, ~tsu, ~nu, and even… ~ru. Some notable exceptions where a ~ru ending is actually a ~u verb include kaeru (to return), hairu (to enter), shiru (to know) and iru (to need).

    Irregular Verbs

    Japanese only has two irregular verbs (hooray!) kuru (to come) and suru (to do). They are both common verbs, but suru is one that you’ll use often. Particularly because it combines with other words to form additional verbs – take benkyou suru (to study) for instance.

    Using Conjugations to Express Different Actions

    With Japanese conjugation, you can attach a variety of endings to express a lot of different ideas. It’s a very useful technique to use because you memorize the endings and tack them on to the ends of different verbs to immediately construct more complex sentences. Here are just a few using みる as an example.

    EndingJapaneseEnglish (formal forms)
    ~mashitaみましたI saw
    ~tsumoridesuみるつもりですI plan to see 
    ~nakerebanaranaidesuみなければならないですI must see
    ~taidesuみたいですI want to see
    ~nikuidesuみにくいですIt’s hard to see

    A Cheat Sheet for Japanese Verb Conjugation

    My Japanese tutor and I worked together to assemble 32 different verb conjugations or form for more than ten of the most common Japanese verbs. I regularly reference it in my studies, so I thought it would be a useful resource for many other Japanese learners.

    Verb conjugation can be tricky, especially when you need to memorize tons of different rules and forms. Having a reference point is a great way to get started and wrap your head around more complex grammar and information.

    Get the PDF

    Tips for Language Learning | Eurolinguiste

    Are you learning Japanese? What are some phrases that you’ve found useful in your target language? I’d love to hear about them in the comments!

    April 28, 2018 • Uncategorized • Views: 77

  • Clear The List | Monthly Language Learning Strategies Update | May

    In April, I wrapped up my second Add1Challenge, this time for Japanese (the first was for Croatian). I also started my third. This time around I’m doing it for…

    *drumroll*

    Korean.

    And Russian.

    I couldn’t decide between the two. Russian is a language I’ve studied pretty lightly up until this point and I’ve never really gone deep with it. I recently had a lesson that made me realize that wasn’t how I wanted to study the language, so I decided to get it in gear and commit to it the way it deserves.

    But before I had that realization, I had already committed to doing the challenge for Korean. A language that I once tried my hand at, but things didn’t really work out. I’m hoping that the second time makes a difference.

    On to #clearthelist

    If you’re new around these parts, #clearthelist is a linkup where we share our monthly goals, and by we, I mean myself, and Lindsay of Lindsay Does Languages.

    We’d absolutely love for you to a part of our community. You can join us by adding a link to your own goal post below.

    So let’s get started, sharing our goals and motivating one another to #clearthelist!

    Please feel free to tag your posts or photos with either #clearthelist on your favorite social media channels!

    Last Month’s Highlights on Instagram

    A post shared by Shannon Kennedy (@eurolinguiste) on Apr 25, 2018 at 8:03am PDT

    Last Month’s Blog Highlights

    Travel

    9 Things to Do in Seminyak, Bali  // A list of a few of things I enjoyed most on my recent trip to Bali.

    Raffles Hotel // A gorgeous colonial style hotel in Singapore that serves the well-known mixed drink the Singapore Sling.

    Language Learning

    How to Learn More than One Language at a Time // Why I don’t want to focus on just one language and what I do to learn more than one at once.

    Why Vocabulary and Grammar Aren’t Enough // Plus an announcement about a new course from Lindsay Williams and I officially opening.

    Last Month’s Goals

    Continue filling the gaps in my Mandarin vocabulary I’ve noticed since Little Linguist’s arrival. // Yes! 

    Read the next Language Reading Challenge book on my list. // Yes! I’m posting about it soon.

    Keep working through my YouTube Queue.  // Yes! I made it through a ton of Russian lessons in my queue.

    Continue to meet my daily goal on LingQ for Japanese. // Yes! And I even started to dig in with Russian again.

    Add1Challenge Day 90 Video // Done!

    This Month’s Goals

    Continue filling the gaps in my Mandarin vocabulary I’ve noticed since Little Linguist’s arrival. // A permanent item on my monthly list.

    Read the next Language Reading Challenge book on my list. // In May, we’re reading a tutorial, recipe or lesson in your target language.

    Keep working through my YouTube Queue.  // I’m still aiming to get through as many lessons as possible. I’m super done being not that great at Russian. Plus, I have tons of great Korean lessons in my queue.

    Continue to meet my daily goal on LingQ for Japanese and Russian. // I’m still a ways off from being able to comfortably read in Korean.

    Add1Challenge // I’m really pushing myself doing two languages in the challenge because it’s an intensive project (plus I’m not dropping my Japanese while I’m doing it). I’ll need to dedicate a lot of time to languages the next three months. 

    Resources I Used This Month

    A quick recap on the materials I am using.

    What I Am Using to Learn Chinese

    What I’m Using to Brush Up/Improve My French:

    • LingQ
    • Immersion (we speak franglais at home)
    • Reading books written by French authors
    • Listening to French radio/podcasts
    • Lingoci

    What I am Using to Learn Russian:

    What I am Using to Learn Korean:

    What I am Using to Learn Spanish:

    What I am Using to Learn Italian:

    What I’m Using to Learn Japanese:

    What I’m Using for Little Linguist

    Resources That Aren’t Language Specific

    The Biggest Lesson I Am Taking Away from This Month

    That the materials and strategies you use to learn one language may not do anything for you at all with another language. 

    As I mentioned earlier, this isn’t my first time trying to learn Korean. I tried a while back with Lindsay, but nothing stuck. This really bothered me, so I decided to give it another go. I couldn’t bring myself to let the language go. 

    The mistake I made was that I tried to learn Korean the same way I learned Chinese, thinking that what I did for one would work for the other. But it didn’t. Plus, it didn’t help that I didn’t have a tutor (this time around I plan to).

    I’m definitely going to keep a close eye on how things are working for me with Korean this time around.

    Don’t forget that I would love to hear all about your goals for this month! Please join us by adding your post to the linkup below! 

    Clear The List Linkup Rules:

    1. Share your goal post whether it includes your aspirations for the month or year. Submissions unrelated to the theme or links to your homepage will be deleted.

    2. Link back to this post. You can use our button if you wish.

    3. Follow the hosts: Lindsay from Lindsay Does Languages and Shannon from Eurolinguiste.

    4. THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT RULE: Please visit the site of the person who linked up immediately before you and leave them an encouraging comment! By hosting this linkup, we’re hoping to create a positive community where we can all share our goals. If you do not do this, you will be removed from the linkup.

    5. Share on social media using #ClearTheList
    An InLinkz Link-up

    Set your language learning goals as a part of the Clear the List Link Up hosted by Shannon Kennedy of Eurolinguiste and Lindsay Williams of Lindsay Does Languages #clearthelist
    <div align="center"><a href="http://eurolinguiste.com/tag/clear-the-list" title="Set your language learning goals as a part of the Clear the List Link Up hosted by Shannon Kennedy of Eurolinguiste and Lindsay Williams of Lindsay Does Languages"><img src="https://secureservercdn.net/198.71.233.68/0pl.7ab.myftpupload.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/clear-the-list-sidebar-1.jpg" alt="Set your language learning goals as a part of the Clear the List Link Up hosted by Shannon Kennedy of Eurolinguiste and Lindsay Williams of Lindsay Does Languages" style="border:none;" /></a></div>

    April 26, 2018 • Eurolinguiste • Views: 76

  • Why Some People Understand Accents Better Than Others + How to Improve Yours

    Aesthetics typically refer to the nature and appreciation of beauty. When applied to the linguistic field, it refers to the appreciation of language’s beauty and nature. On a more informal level, aesthetics of language could be viewed as our individual perception of the sound and beauty of a language. This is form where the idea that “French is romantic” or that “German is harsh sounding” emerges.

    But it isn’t about languages as a whole that we form these judgements.

    By the age of three or four, you begin to develop opinions about the languages, dialects and accents you hear. These associations are developed by the voices you hear on television, the accents and speech of your parents and other close family, or from even hearing your parents say, “oh, you have such a beautiful accent” to someone that you meet.

    Our accents play a big role in the formation of our identities. It tells people where we might be from, what our native language might be, or what social groups we identity with. It’s also why we often make small (or sometimes large) adjustments to our accents when we move to a new place.

    An accent can mark us as an insider or as an outsider.

    If we adjust our accents and the ways we speak, we can better fit in with different groups. And if we want to identify with those groups, changing our accent is something we aim to do (even if it’s subconscious).

    But sometimes, especially when taking on a new language, our accents are something that we’re stuck with, often earning us the question, “where are you from?” A frustration for many learners who wish they could be indistinguishable from the locals – “when will I lose my accent?”

    Whether it’s in your native language or a language that you’re learning, have you ever noticed, that sometimes, no matter how hard you work at reducing your accent, some people just don’t seem to understand you?

    It’s something that I’ve experienced with certain languages. It got me curious about the subject, so I did some investigating.

    It’s Not Just Accent That Affects Our Comprehension

    How well we understand someone else, whether it’s in our native or target language, depends on what is called ‘speech clarity’.

    Speech clarity is determined by how fast someone speaks, the gender of the speaker, the pitch of their voice, whether or not there is background noise, distance from the speaker, and accent.

    Some people are equipped to better handle a wider range of clarity than others and it all comes down to one thing: how wide of a scale you’ve been exposed to.

    If your circumstances mean that you haven’t heard a wide variety of accents or poor clarity with any consistency, you’ll have a harder time understand different accents than someone who has had that exposure. If you have, you’ll do alright.

    The Reason Some Accents Are Hard to Understand

    When we hear someone speak, we already have an idea of how the language is supposed to sound. When it doesn’t quite fit, we have to work a little harder sort it out. And that requires mental energy. This process slows us down, which means our comprehension is diminished. You’re still trying to figure out what someone has said when the conversation has already moved on.

    This is called “effortful listening” because “because the accented speech itself deviates from listener expectations in (often) systematic ways”. (source

    When we listen to someone speak in a way we’re not used to hearing, we have to try harder to understand them. And if you’re not used to making that effort, it can be difficult to maintain.

    In an article on accents, a native Italian speaker wrote the following:

    “I was born and raised in Rome, so Italian is my native language. Now I live in the US, and I’m basically bilingual. Yet, when I hear other people speak English with an accent, sometimes I have a hard time understanding what they’re saying. In movies […] I sometimes struggle; if I don’t turn on the subtitles, I’ll miss half of what they’re saying. But when I hear a fellow Italian speak English, even with a thick accent, I have no problems at all. I understand everything.“ (source

    This is interesting because it’s not that he can’t understand strong accents, he can. But only those he is familiar with. Unfamiliar accents prevent him from enjoying or engaging with certain things and in certain situations.

    What to Do If You Struggle to Understand an Accent

    If you have a hard time understanding other accents, you’ll want to do what you can to reduce any other interference so that you can focus on the other speaker. So, if for example, the conversation is taking place in a loud room, ask your conversation partner to move to a quieter place with you. If the phone connection is bad, ask if you can call back at another time.

    Other things that you can do are to:

    1. Ask the speaker to slow down. // Sometimes this helps clarify things, but be warned – sometimes asking the speaker to slow down causes them to exaggerate their accent rather than reduce it.

    2. Expose yourself to different accents. // If there is an accent you commonly hear, try to get more exposure to it. Youtube is a great source for finding speakers of different accents. If there isn’t a specific accent, you can still benefit by listening to a wide range of accents.

    3. Ask them to write it down. // If this is for a language tutoring session, you can ask your tutor to write what they said in the chat. Being able to read it sometimes makes it all click. If the conversation is for something important or work related, you can ask them to write you an email summarizing their requests. That way, you can avoid being rude by constantly interrupting them and asking them to clarify and you can be sure you don’t miss anything.

    What to Do If You Struggle to Make Yourself Understood

    It’s sometimes hard to think, “I have an accent.” Until you travel somewhere where everyone speaks with a different accent than your own and you’re the minority, it can feel like everyone else has an accent but you.

    When you’re learning another language, however, a strong accent is often something you can’t escape (at least for a while).

    When you look up advice on accent, a lot of the tips are for how to “improve your accent”. This bothers me somewhat because it implies that certain accents are better than others. I don’t believe that this is true. There are many different modes of speaking, and each has its place.

    Instead, I prefer to offer tips to “reduce” an accent.

    Here are a few tips to help you reduce your accent:

    1. Shadowing // This is a technique where you mimic a native speaker. The idea is you repeat what you hear as quickly and as closely as you can to the original. You can find videos demonstrating this technique here. 

    2. Work with audio resources often // The more you hear a language, the more you tune your ear to its rhythm and pronunciation. The more familiar you are with how it sounds, the better you will be at producing it.

    3. Speak often // When you speak a new language, you’re training the muscles in your mouth. You need to learn to produce new sounds and new combinations of sounds, and the only way to get better at this is with practice. So if you’re goal is to reduce your accent, speak often!

    4. Record yourself // One of the best ways to judge how you’re doing as far as accent and pronunciation is to record yourself and listen back to it. Once you’re slightly removed from the situation, as a recording provides, you can evaluate how you’re doing more objectively.

    5. Find the right audience // When your aim is to get language practice with someone who will understand you even with an accent, you want to find someone who will be used to hearing different accents. Someone on the street is going to have a harder time understanding you with a strong accent than a language exchange partner or tutor who have likely had more exposure to different accents. So the best place to find someone to chat with is through a language exchange site.

    Conclusion

    When it comes to accent, what matters most is finding the time to do more listening comprehension. The more exposure you have the better you’ll do in understanding and being understood.

    Personally, I find accents to be a positive thing. They are a part of who you are and can be a great conversation starter. As someone who’s shy, having an accent is a great way to get the ball rolling. The people that I talk to are curious about my accent and where I’m from. It’s an easy thing to talk about and a great way to get to know people.

    What about you?

    What are your thoughts on accent and accent reduction?

    I’d love to hear from you in the comments.

    April 23, 2018 • Language Resources • Views: 2056

  • The Singapore Sling at Raffles Hotel in Singapore

    In 2017, Raffles Hotel celebrated its 130th anniversary. Over the past century, it has housed guests such as Michael Jackson, Charlie Chaplan, Elizabeth Taylor, and several other figures of note.

    The hotel is steeped in history, and even has its own resident historian – Leslie Danker – who himself has more than 45 years of history with Raffles. 

    Originally a beachfront property in the 1930s, the hotel has since expanded to include more buildings and wings.

    The Original Singapore Sling at Raffles Hotel in Singapore | Eurolinguiste
    The Original Singapore Sling at Raffles Hotel in Singapore | Eurolinguiste
    The Original Singapore Sling at Raffles Hotel in Singapore | Eurolinguiste

    The Singapore Sling

    Invented in the early 1900s by Ngiam Tom Boon, is the hotel’s trademark drink – The Singapore Sling. A mixture of gin, cherry liquor, Cointreau, Benedictine, grenadine, pineapple juice, lime juice and bitters, this sweet concoction has become a well-known symbol of Singapore. 

    The Long Bar serves the drink along with a bag of peanuts and is one of the few places I know of where they still invite you to dispose of the shells by tossing them onto the ground. There is a box, however, for those who’d prefer to be a bit neater. 

    The Original Singapore Sling at Raffles Hotel in Singapore | Eurolinguiste
    The Original Singapore Sling at Raffles Hotel in Singapore | Eurolinguiste
    The Original Singapore Sling at Raffles Hotel in Singapore | Eurolinguiste
    The Original Singapore Sling at Raffles Hotel in Singapore | Eurolinguiste
    The Original Singapore Sling at Raffles Hotel in Singapore | Eurolinguiste
    The Original Singapore Sling at Raffles Hotel in Singapore | Eurolinguiste

    Staying at the Raffles Hotel

    Deemed a national monument, the hotel has a gorgeous open lobby that offers glimpses of the various floors and stunning architecture. But staying in one of the Raffles Hotel beautifully decorated colonial styles rooms will cost upwards of $700 a night. 

    The Original Singapore Sling at Raffles Hotel in Singapore | Eurolinguiste
    The Original Singapore Sling at Raffles Hotel in Singapore | Eurolinguiste

    Raffles Hotel
    1 Beach Road, Singapore
    +65 6337 1886

    What about you?

    Have you visited one of the Raffles locations? Have you ever had a “trademark” drink? 

    I’d love to hear about it in the comments.

    April 19, 2018 • Travel • Views: 89

  • Mandarin HQ Review | Learn Real, Conversational Chinese

    The majority of my intensive Chinese language study was in preparation for the HSK exam. For a year, I focused on test preparation, having to put speaking and learning conversational language on hold until after I sat the exam.

    The minute the test was over, I immediately for more colloquial lessons and learning material. After learning textbook Chinese for so long, I was eager to speak the language more naturally.

    I began following different Twitter channels and somewhere along the way, I discovered Angel Huang.

    Mandarin HQ

    Angel Huang is one of the co-founders of Mandarin HQ, a course designed to “help you bridge the gap between textbook Chinese and real spoken Chinese.”

    The videos range from beginner to elementary to intermediate, and they feature useful phrases and even dialogues with people out on the street in Mandarin. Each level contains more than fifty video lessons on a wide range of topics.

    Mandarin HQ Review | Learn Real, Conversational Chinese | Eurolinguiste
    Mandarin HQ Review | Learn Real, Conversational Chinese | Eurolinguiste

    My Experience Using Mandarin HQ

    I’d seen Angel free’s video courses on YouTube and her website, but I didn’t realize how thorough her lessons were until I joined The Vault. And even a year into starting the program, there is still a ton of material for me to get through.

    The videos teach you useful expressions in four steps.

    • Audio
    • Audio and Chinese subtitles
    • Audio and English subtitles
    • Test

    You get to spend time with each of the lessons, really getting to know the material in detail so that when you’re out in the real world, your confidence using the expressions taught in Mandarin HQ.

    In each level, all of the videos are available to you. You don’t have to progress through a set path, so you can work through the material in the order that is most suitable for you. That way, you really maximize the time you spend with this resource.

    Plus, you can loop any part of the videos with the control panel. So if there’s one section you have a hard time understanding, you can focus on it. And, if you struggle with word order or grammar, there is also a section where you can see literal translations. That way you can take steps towards mastering Chinese word order and grammar.

    Personally, I didn’t work through the lessons in order. Instead, I bounced around selecting those that covered topics that were of personal interest to me. In each lesson, I made sure to do the listening without subtitles and with Chinese subtitles. It was only if I truly felt I needed the help that I completed the third module, the version of the video with English subtitles.

    I thought it was well done by Mandarin HQ to have the Mandarin and English subtitles separated. That way, you can focus on comprehension with each. You’re less likely to “cheat” when the third step is when you get the English translations. The course certainly does its job in training your listening comprehension.

    Mandarin HQ Review | Learn Real, Conversational Chinese | Eurolinguiste
    Mandarin HQ Review | Learn Real, Conversational Chinese | Eurolinguiste
    Mandarin HQ Review | Learn Real, Conversational Chinese | Eurolinguiste

    Things that I Like About Mandarin HQ

    The presentation // I really enjoy Angel’s teaching style. She does a great job presenting the material and breaking everything down.

    The content // There is a wide range of content on Mandarin HQ. Everything from colors to work vocabulary, celebrations to describing appearances, plans to routines. Regardless of why you’re learning Mandarin, you’ll find lessons to suit your interests within the course. And with more than 150 lessons, you’ll get a lot out of Mandarin HQ.

    Intermediate material // As an intermediate/advanced Mandarin learner, finding suitable material is tough. Especially great quality audio material. Thankfully, there’s plenty of it in Mandarin HQ.

    You get to hear many different accents and speakers // Each lesson features several native Chinese speakers, so you get to hear several different genders, accents, and speaking styles. This is really excellent for boosting your listening comprehension.

    The quizzes // I love the way that the quizzes are structured. You’re asked to listen and select all of the versions of the phrase that you hear. I found that, compared to other listening quiz styles, this is challenging. So in completing the quizzes, I know I’m taking my listening comprehension to the next level.

    Mandarin HQ Review | Learn Real, Conversational Chinese | Eurolinguiste
    Mandarin HQ Review | Learn Real, Conversational Chinese | Eurolinguiste

    Things that Could Be Better

    More topics // Even though there is a wide variety of topics on Mandarin HQ, I would love to see more video lessons on topics that aren’t usually covered by other courses.

    An advanced level // Of course, with such great content presented so well, it goes without saying that having an advanced level would be incredible.

    Navigation // You need to click and navigate manually more than many of the other course interfaces. I’d love to see some of the next screen navigation happen automatically so that the user doesn’t need to scroll and click around as much to figure out where to go next.

    The loading is sometimes slow // After each quiz question and to get your quiz results, the loading is sometimes pretty slow.

    To Sum Up

    Mandarin HQ is a high quality course with useful conversational material presented in an extremely effective format and by a charismatic teacher. Angel Huang has done a wonderful job with this course and I truly benefitted from the time I spent working through it. I definitely look forward to seeing what is in store in the future. In the meantime, I plan to continue to enjoy the lessons within Mandarin HQ and Angel’s blog. Recommended.

    What about you?

    Have you tried Mandarin HQ? What did you think?

    What Mandarin audio resources have you loved? 

    I look forward to hearing from you in the comments below.

    April 16, 2018 • Language Resources • Views: 144

  • 9 Things to Do In Seminyak, Bali

    My trip to Seminyak was my first time in Bali and it was a relaxing trip. The villas are gorgeous, the beach is a site to see, and the local food is delicious.

    If you find yourself in Seminyak, Bali, here are a few of the things that you can do.

    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste
    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste

    1. Hang out on the beach.

    In Seminyak, the water is just a short walk away from most of the hotels and villas. Watching the sun set across the water is a great way to end the day.

    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste
    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste

    2. Lounge in the beanbag chairs at one of the restaurants along the water.

    A number of restaurants and bars line the beach, so whether you go to enjoy a local meal or a Bintang it’s hard not to lose hours lounging in one of the comfortable bean bags set out on the beach (if you can find one or two that are empty!)

    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste
    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste

    3. Get great deals at the local shops.

    In Seminyak, there is everything from souvenir shops to upper scale clothing and art stores. Even if you’re just window shopping, spending time in some of the shopping areas like Jalan Laksmana may offer you the chance to pick up some affordable wear. 

    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste

    4. Visit a local market.

    There’s nothing like the full-on sensory experience of visiting a local fish market in Bali. The smells, chatter and choices can be overwhelming, but it’s certainly a world of its own.

    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste
    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste
    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste
    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste
    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste

    5. Relax at a villa.

    After the hustle and bustle of a long day visiting the shops, sitting out in the sun and heat on the beach, or shopping, there’s nothing like returning to your villa to relax, perhaps spend some time at the pool, or just enjoy the quiet. We stayed at the Villa Blubambu and highly recommend it.

    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste

    6. Take a Cooking Class.

    Learn to make local food by taking a cooking class while in Bali. We attended one at the Amala villa and had a wonderful time cooking, making friends, and devouring the result of our work.

    Scuba Diving with Manta Manta Diving in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste

    7. Go scuba diving.

    The water is warm and the diversity of sea life is impressive. There are lots of local dive masters who offer affordable diving options and even certification. We went with Manta Manta Diving and had an incredible time.

    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste

    8. Admire some of the local temples.

    In Bali, it seemed as though almost every house was also a temple. And as we drove around the area, there were quite a festivals that took place. The architecture is elaborate and is definitely a site to see.

    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste
    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste

    9. Enjoy the restaurants.

    The food in Bali is tasty. Whether nasi goreng or pig roast, there something for every preference. Don’t miss out on experiencing local food by visiting Western-style restaurants.

    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste
    Things to Do In & Around Seminyak, Bali | Eurolinguiste

    What about you?

    Have you been to Bali or Seminyak? I’d love to hear about what you enjoyed doing in the comments below.

    April 12, 2018 • Travel • Views: 83

  • How to Learn More Than One Language at a Time

    A short while ago, my good friend Kerstin Cable posted a question in her Facebook group. She asked, “if you could only study one language for the next five years, what would it be?”

    I began to type, thinking it would be an easy answer. Chinese – duh! It’s not my native language and it’s the language I speak with Little Linguist, so I need to always stay ahead of him. In five years, he’ll be quite the conversationalist, so that would definitely need to be my one language.

    But then my fingers grew still on the keyboard as I began to imagine an entire five years with just one language.

    I hit delete.

    It wasn’t a question I could answer because even if it’s just an imaginary scenario, it’s something that’s not easy for me to imagine.

    Shortly after, I received a question from someone about what my thoughts were on learning more than one language at once.

    Recently, I’ve discovered the value of focusing on one language.

    But here’s where I’m going to be completely honest with you. Even when I have a focus language, I don’t completely set my other languages aside. Yup, I’m unfaithful to my focus languages.

    There. I said it. It’s out there.

    I’m just not a one language at a time kind of person.

    Outside of the last three months or so of preparing for the HSK exam, I don’t think I’ve ever just studied one language.

    And here’s why I don’t think I ever will.

    1. I can take a break from language learning without really taking a break.

    If I get frustrated, overwhelmed or bored with my main language, I can hit pause and look at a different language. That way I get a break from my focus language, but don’t have to take a break from language completely.

    This allows me to come back to my main language refreshed without losing the habit of language study that I’ve established.

    2. Sometimes working on a different language helps me understand a problem I’m having in my focus language.

    When you learn a different language, sometimes certain aspects of that language are explained in a way that help you understand parts of another language.

    For example, I didn’t understand how Russian cases even remotely until I began to study them intensely for Croatian. In doing this, I gained the ability to better use Croatian cases and an understanding of what I needed to do to learn them for Russian.

    The same was true of particles. When I studied Korean, particles were completely new to me. I wasn’t really sure how to use them or which to use. When I began to study them for Japanese, I had already been introduced to their function and was able to more quickly learn them. When I go back to Korean, I’ll have a stronger foundation to look at them once again.

    3. I don’t want to lose too much of my languages by taking an extended break.

    The longer you step away from the language, the more you forget. That means the next time you pick it up, the more review you’ll have to do.

    I prefer to learn new material and spend less time reviewing, so I try not to let too much time lapse when I take a break from a language.

    4. I love languages too much to not dabble in more than one.

    And even though I’ve settled on my forever languages, there are still a few others that I had to – very reluctantly – cut from the final list.

    To maintain and improve the languages that I’ve committed to, I need to work on more than one at once.

    5. At the moment, I don’t have a job or anything else that requires me to attain and maintain an extremely high level in one or two languages so I’m okay with being decent or even okay at several.

    If this changes, how I study will change too. But, I’m happy with the way that my learning is going and I’m happy when I’m learning more than one language.

    Learning Just One Language at a Time is a Good Thing for Some Language Learners

    On the other end of the spectrum, here is why I think it’s good to study one language at a time:

    1. You get a lot farther, a lot faster with a language when you focus on it.

    When you study just one language at a time, all of your time and attention go to that one language. And that means you get better at it faster. If you want to learn a language quickly, learning just one at a time is the way to go.

    2. You’re less likely to confuse your languages.

    When you learn more than one language at the same time, the chances that you’ll confuse them is higher. Even when they’re unrelated.

    If you decide to learn more than one language (even if it’s not at the same time), this mixing is something that happens. There’s really no avoiding it. Learning only one language at a time, however, does decrease the amount it happens.

    So now that I’ve shared why I study more than one language at a time and the benefits of studying just one language at a time, I want to talk about my process for learning more than one language at once.

    3. You aren’t yet an experienced language learner.

    If you’re trying to learn how to learn languages at the same time you’re learning more than one language, it might be too much. In my experience, it’s best to have at least one language under your belt before you add in more languages. It’s good to have gone through the process of learning a language (even if it’s to an intermediate level) before you add something new to the mix.

    How I Learn More Than One Language at a Time

    My process for learning more than one language at once has gone through some significant changes over the past few years.

    In the past, I was pretty unorganized. Today, I’m much more selective.

    Here is what I do:

    1. At any given time, I have a focus language.

    This means that it gets the bulk of my study time. If my day is full, I make sure I get to this language and skip looking at the others until my schedule permits it.

    2. I do short-term language projects.

    Much like Benny Lewis of Fluent in 3 Months, I’ve grown fond of doing three-month long intensive projects. Doing this has given me the chance to revive my Croatian and take on Japanese. But I’ve also done much shorter projects like my three day Italian refresh.

    This gives me focused time for my main language, but isn’t long enough that I can get distracted by other new and exciting languages or resources. I know that I can add them to my “want to try” list and that in a very short time, will get to do just that.

    3. I only have two or three side languages at a time even though I work on eight total languages.

    And sometimes just one. These are my break or “need to maintain” languages, so I sometimes hang on to them for more than three months. Other times, I only need to work on them briefly for a specific project. Once that project is over, I can swap them out with another side language.

    4. I use language laddering.

    Language laddering is when you use one of your stronger languages to learn a new language or improve a weaker language. I often use French to learn Croatian, Croatian to learn Russian, and sometimes use Chinese to learn Japanese.

    Doing this also allows me to deliberately practice switching between similar languages so that I’m less likely to confuse them.

    5. I don’t start learning more than one new language at a time.

    With the exception of when I was at university and had to study both Italian and German at the same time, I don’t start learning more than one new language at a time. Instead, I start one, give it some attention, get somewhat comfortable with it, *and then* pick up a new one.

    When you start a new language, *everything* is new and so it can be pretty overwhelming. When you try to do this with more than one language, you’re doubling or tripling that sense of overwhelm.

    6. I find and commit to a tutor for my focus language asap.

    Doing so makes me even more committed to the language because I don’t want to waste my tutor’s time. I make sure that I’m doing the work between sessions so that we have something new to work on each session.

    And once I commit to a tutor, I usually keep up my lessons even when I have a new focus language. (i’ll write about my system for this in another post soon)

    7. I accept that sometimes I’m going to feel guilty about not spending time with certain languages.

    My time is limited and I don’t spend it all learning languages. This means that I won’t get to study every single language every single day. And sometimes I don’t spend time with them for months. And I also know there are languages that I want to learn that I won’t learn. Before I let this guilt take over and I spread myself to thin in an attempt to study all the languages all the time.

    Now I accept that it’s part of the process and it’s a comprise I needed to make to achieve my long-term goals.

    I won’t ever be able to erase the guilt I feel when I realize it’s been a year since I’ve studied Korean or that I’ve let my Italian slide yet again. And I don’t want to. It’s what brings me back to those languages when I finally do have time for them.

    I don’t, however, let that guilt take over any more. I know that if I stick to the system I’ve worked so hard at, that I’ll get the results I’m aiming for.

    In Conclusion

    For me personally, learning more than one language at a time just works. I stay fascinated by languages, get to try out a lot of different and interesting methods and resources, and have the opportunity to learn about tons of different places and cultures.

    Every learner is different, so there is no right or wrong. Learning more than one language at a time may be the right choice for you. But maybe learning one language at a time is more your style.

    You won’t know until you try.

    What about you?

    Do you commit to one language when you study or do you like to work on more than one at once?

    I look forward to hearing from you in the comments below.

    April 9, 2018 • Language Resources • Views: 369

  • Cooking in Seminyak, Bali | Balinese Cooking Class

    One of the things I enjoy doing at home is cooking. Every so often, my mother and I attend a local class, and we enjoy it immensely.

    When I was planning my trip to Bali, I discovered cooking classes were offered at one of the villas in Seminyak so we decided to sign up. A local chef would teach us to make Balinese food after we picked up fresh ingredients at a local market.

    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste

    Everything about the day was perfectly planned out. A driver came to pick us up at our villa and drive us to the Jimbaran Fish Market. The chef shared our car, so we were able to ask him about the menu we were preparing and some of the other options they offered. He told us about the area and a little bit about the market we would visit.

    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste

    We arrived at the market, a small series of enclosed buildings right off the beach. The view was incredible. While we waited for the other members to join us, we enjoyed watching the boats come back in with their catch, locals building nets on the sand, and the smells wafting from the food carts that lined the walkway.

    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste

    Our chef took us through the first building where we gathered fresh vegetables. He explained how to determine the quality and told us the names of the vegetables that were unfamiliar to many of us. We then made our way to the building where the fish was kept.

    The smell was overwhelming. The warm, covered building did nothing to minimize the stench. And the vendors were endlessly adding ice to the bins where they held their wares. I had never seen such a wide selection of seafood and was amazed at the range on display. 

    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste

    After finishing up at the market, we loaded back up into our cars and made our way to the villa where the class was held. The Amala is a gorgeous lodging with a gorgeous courtyard. The staff greeted us with a refreshing glass of iced tea, and gestured for us to find seats beneath the ciovered area of the courtyard.

    They took the ingredients we had purchased to rinse and arrange in a large bowl, returning with a portable stove, and the other equipment we would need to prepare our food.

    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste

    The chef showed us how to cut and prepare the ingredients and set us to task, dividing up the chopping, grinding and dicing fairly between us and the other students. Then the cooking began.

    Our meal included:

    LAWAR SALAD – green beans, fresh coconut & chicken salad
    TUM IKAN – fish steamed in banana leaf
    DADAR GULUNG – coconut crepes with palm sugar, pandan and coconut

    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste

    Again, we each took turns at the pan, stirring as needed. Once everything was close to done, the staff returned to plate everything and bring it to the table. We were given glasses of water and dug in.

    The food was delicious. Perhaps more so because we had a hand in its creation. It was wonderful to have the chance to learn to make Balinese food, experiencing the entire process from start to finish.

    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste
    Balinese Cooking Class at the Amala in Bali, Indonesia | Eurolinguiste

    Overall, it was an incredible experience and definitely something I’d do again. I look forward to more cooking classes during my travels in the future.

    For more information: Balinese Cooking Class in Seminyak at the Amala

    What about you?

    Have you ever taken a class when traveling? I’d love to hear about it in the comments below.

    April 5, 2018 • Travel • Views: 91

  • Glossika Review | Audio-Based Learning at the Sentence Level

    I am always on the lookout for good audio resources. Because I spend so much of my time in the car, this is where I do the bulk of my language study.

    For languages like Croatian, there’s not a lot available, so whenever I find something, I’m over the moon.

    Because my goal with many of my languages is to attain a conversational level, listening comprehension is doubly important to me.

    And that’s why I’ve found Glossika to be an invaluable resource.

    Glossika Review | Audio-Based Learning at the Sentence Level | Eurolinguiste
    Glossika Review | Audio-Based Learning at the Sentence Level | Eurolinguiste

    Meet Glossika

    When I first discovered Glossika, the platform was completely different than it is today. At present, Glossika is an online software (though you can download audio to work on offline). It is audio-based, but you can read the sentences in both your native and target languages as you work through the exercises.

    The tool uses Glossika Mass Sentences. In other words, it’s all about learning a language by practicing a lot of sentences. The focus isn’t on individual words or grammar, but on learning at the sentence level.

    In the words of Glossika founder Mike Campbell, “By focusing on language at the sentence level, it makes it easier to learn several things that are not easy to learn by themselves: pronunciation, syntax, vocabulary, and grammar.” (source) This method is mixed with spaced-repetition. That means the software repeats sentences for you just before you might forget them.

    Founded by Mike Campbell, the company is based in Taiwan where it has a team that specializes in creating its immersive learning program.

    Glossika Review | Audio-Based Learning at the Sentence Level | Eurolinguiste
    Glossika Review | Audio-Based Learning at the Sentence Level | Eurolinguiste

    Who is Glossika for?

    Glossika is best for the upper beginner or intermediate learner. Someone with a basic understanding of the language.

    What I Like About Glossika?

    The Placement Test // If you have experience with the language, I recommend taking the placement test. That way, you don’t have to start from the beginning. You can skip what you already know and dive right into the new material. With a repetition-based program, this is an excellent feature. You don’t grow bored drilling sentences you already know and can focus on new material.

    Speaking // If you activate your microphone, Glossika records you speaking the sentences. You aren’t given feedback on your recordings, but it’s still a great way to get speaking practice without the pressure of conversing. And because you’re mimicking the sentences you heard only a moment for, it’s a useful way to improve your accent, too.

    Flexible Settings // You can choose between normal, slow or fast so that you can experience the audio at different speeds. Other settings you can choose include:

    • Whether or not you see the text in your native language
    • Whether or not you hear the sentence read in your native language
    • The speed of the sentences in both your native and target languages
    • The amount of space between the sentences (to give you time to repeat or process if needed)
    • Whether or not the sentences in your target language are repeated before moving on to the next sentence
    • The topics you learn
    • The number of new sentences your introduced to per session

    The Language Selection // In addition to many of the more popular languages, Glossika also offers a lot of languages that don’t have many resources available elsewhere. Some of these include Croatian, Serbian, Taiwanese Hokkien, Kurdish, Cantonese, Gaelic, Irish, European Portuguese, and Southern Vietnamese.

    Glossika is Perfect for Language Laddering // You can set your native language to any language available in the Glossika system. This means that if you already speak a language at an intermediate or advanced intermediate level, you can use it to improve another language. Once I realized this is an option, I changed my native language to French. I was then able to keep my French active while learning many of the other languages in the system.

    Glossika Review | Audio-Based Learning at the Sentence Level | Eurolinguiste
    Glossika Review | Audio-Based Learning at the Sentence Level | Eurolinguiste

    Things That Could Be Better

    More Writing Support // For a language like Japanese, you’re shown both kana and kanji. This means you need to be familiar with all three systems in order to understand the written sentences. Additionally, you need to have the appropriate keyboard installed to try out the three of the four writing exercises: typing, dictation, and fill in the blank.

    More Cultural Context // All of the sentences are the same for every language in Glossika. This means that you lose out on any cultural context. That said, Glossika admits that it is not a complete language learning solution (and the same can be said for any language resource). So you can always learn about the cultural elements of your language outside of Glossika.

    Your Personal Dashboard Could Be Easier to Navigate // For me personally, I’d love to have a personalized dashboard where I could see my progress with each of the languages I’m using, how many repetitions are due, how many repetitions I’ve done, and how many are left before I’ve completed the course. You can see this within each course, but I’d love to be able to see this at a glance in a personalized dashboard.

    Glossika Review | Audio-Based Learning at the Sentence Level | Eurolinguiste
    Glossika Review | Audio-Based Learning at the Sentence Level | Eurolinguiste
    Glossika Review | Audio-Based Learning at the Sentence Level | Eurolinguiste

    How Much Does Glossika Cost?

    At the time of writing, for non-enterprise users, Glossika currently has two payment plans. The Free plan gives you unlimited access to their free languages and 1,000 reps with standard languages. The paid plan gives you full access to all languages and premium features for $30/month (or $24.99/month when you pay for a year in advance).

    In Conclusion

    Glossika is an excellent course with high-quality audio, tons of useful material and is a treasure trove for those learning languages with few resources. The price is amazing considering the fact that you get every language within Glossika. Recommended.

    Try Glossika

    What about you?

    Have you tried Glossika? What did you think?

    What’s your favorite audio resource? I’d love to hear from you in the comments.

    April 2, 2018 • Language Resources • Views: 355